The monkey is reaching

by Hakuin

English version by Norman Waddell
Original Language Japanese

The monkey is reaching
For the moon in the water.
Until death overtakes him
He'll never give up.
If he'd let go the branch and
Disappear in the deep pool,
The whole world would shine
With dazzling pureness.

-- from Essential Teachings of Zen Master Hakuin, by Norman Waddell

<<Previous Poem | More Poems by Hakuin | Next Poem >>

View All Poems by Hakuin

Commentary by Ivan M. Granger

This is such a fascinating teaching poem. But what is really being said?

Hakuin paints for us an elaborate picture. First, we have the moon. It is reflected in water. A monkey hangs from a branch above the water, and it yearns for the moon that it sees reflected in the water. The monkey continually reaches into the water to grasp the moon, but the prize eludes his grip.

Who is the monkey? Well, we are. Or, more specifically, it is the busy, grasping mind. It is that chattering, gibbering aspect of the awareness that we most often identify with.

The moon, as I have often pointed out, is a common representation in Zen poetry of enlightened awareness, ripened or full awareness.

So the monkey, the mind, is seeking enlightenment, though it fails to understand what it is really grasping at. It just notices something shiny, and desires to possess it. The mind is not truly reaching for enlightenment; instead it grasps at a mere reflection of that light in the water below it.

What is this water? It can be understood as the world of manifest reality. It reflects the light of enlightenment. In fact, that is the world's purpose. But while it appears to be real, it is found to be fleeting, changing, ultimately intangible.

The monkey mind never tires of grasping at what shines and shimmers in reflection. This is partly because, in addition to the moon, the monkey sees itself reflected as well -- and it loves its own face.

Hakuin laughs and gives us the solution: The monkey mind must let go of the branch it clings to and "disappear into the deep pool" of reality. The monkey's fall represents the insight that the way is not attained through effort but through supreme yielding. When the mind stops grasping at reflections, when it fades into stillness, only then does the whole world shine "with dazzling pureness." In other words, the mind can never grasp enlightenment. When it finally gives up and gets out of the way, then enlightenment is discovered to have already come about.

Recommended Books: Hakuin

Zen Poetry: Let the Spring Breeze Enter Essential Teachings of Zen Master Hakuin Wild Ivy: The Spiritual Autobiography of Zen Master Hakuin Secrets of the Blue Cliff Record: Zen Comments by Hakuin and Tenkei The Zen Koan

The monkey is